France waited their turn. Francois Demelle published a book looking at handwriting analysis in 1609. Eugene Francois Vidocq contributed many things to forensics; he is a model to current detectives worldwide. Vidocq had a shaky start, though. As a young man of moderately wealthy merchant parents, Vidocq was privileged and bored. He was a thief who managed to find trouble often. It really caught up with him, however, when he decided to steal from his parent's bakery. He went on the run, repeatedly getting in trouble with the law and with young girls' fathers. He was at one point exiled from France. He was marked for duels and shotgun weddings on a regular basis until he ended up in jail. He did, however, turn things around when he became a police informant who helped catch criminals that constantly evaded the police, called the Surete. He was pardoned from jail and allowed to become an officer. He was not well liked by his peers, however. Vidocq found the police methods inefficient. He changed styles, went undercover, copyrighted paper and ink, updated methods of keeping track of people arrested, and much more. He did so well in the public eye that he became Chief the the Surete. Eventually, a portion of Surete managed to pin charges on Vidocq that cost him his position as Chief. This didn't stop Vidocq. He opened the first Detective Agency. He also employed ex-cons, those people who were considered no longer a part of society. Vidocq was named the "First Detective" because of his success in turning his life abilities into a productive career of catching criminals. Another French contributor was Mathieu Orfila, a Spaniard, who became known as "the Father of Toxicology" through his studies of poison detection. He wrote the first toxicology paper and inspired others to look at how poison were used and their effects on the human body system. Much later, his colleague, James Marsh (an Englishman), traced arsenic in small amounts in human tissue. He was able to detect samples at 1 millionth of an ounce. His test led to the first ever murder conviction by poisoning, much to Marie Lafarge's disappointment. Before Marsh test, men and women alike used arsenic to kill off older brothers, fathers, and husbands or wives. Arsenic is a tasteless, odorless, colorless poison that produced symptoms similar to the local diseases like cholera, flu, and dysentery. It was rarely suspected as many travelers often died of similar symptoms.
Germany looked at the things that China and France were doing and decided to start teaching these methods in their University.