Bullet Velocity
     This is when the bullet is traveling through the air.  Some factors that affect the travel are retardation and drag.  Retardation is the degree of drag slowing down a bullet.  Increasing velocity causes an increase in retardation.  Drag is the effect of forces pulling on the bullet.  For instance, as the bullet spins, wind resistance and gravity act on the bullet to pull it out of its straight line.  By spinning the bullet faster, the bullet is less likely to yaw.  Yaw is a wobbling effect on the bullet.  Increasing the rifling twist from 1 in 12 to 1 in 7 decreases the yaw.  We will not worry about retardation or drag in our formulas.

We will look at finding kinetic energy.  Kinetic energy uses Mass and Velocity.

Kinetic Energy (KE) = 1/2 X Mass X Velocity squared.

Mass is the same formula as with Muzzle Velocity.  Velocity is in feet per second.

If BW = 180 grains, M = .82   If velocity (V) = 550 V squared = 302500 (You just take 550 X 550.)

KE = 1/2 X .82 X 302500  therefore KE = 124025 foot-pounds